Vietnam’s general information
If you are foreigner tourists, you know Vietnam related to delicious foods ( Pho, Banh Mi, etc) or spectacular spots ( Halong Bay, Son Doong Cave, etc). Howerver, you don’t know anything about S- shaped country called Vietnam. In order to help all travelers understand more about beloved country, we would like to show you about the general information about Vietnam as follows:
Vietnam is located on the eastern seaboard of the Indochina peninsula, sharing common borders with China in the north, and Laos and Cambodia in the west. To the east and south lies the South China Sea, which the Vietnamese call the East Sea. Mountains and hills cover four fifths of Vietnam's territory with the Truong Son range stretching over 1,400 km. Mount Fansipan (3,142m) is the highest peak on mainland Southeast Asia.
The most populated areas in Vietnam are the Red River Delta and the Mekong Delta, which form around Vietnam's two largest rivers. Vietnam's 3,444 km coastline features beautiful beaches like Tra Co, Lang Co, Nha Trang, Vung Tau, and Ha Tien. National parks include Ba Vi, Cat Ba, and Cuc Phuong in the north, Ke Bang, Bach Ma in the center, and Cat Tien in the south.
Vietnam's climate varies a great deal from north to south. Northern Vietnam has four distinct seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In the north, summers are hot, while winters are cool and misty. Southern Vietnam is hot year-round, with temperatures typically varying by just three degrees Celcius. Tropical monsoons occur from May to October in the north and south, and from September to January in the center.
Vietnam's history can roughly be divided into the following periods:
- Pre-history: From circa 400,000 years (Paleolithic) to 4,000 years (Neolithic) ago, cultures in the area included Son Vi, Hoa Binh, Bac Son, Ha Long, and Hoa Loc.
- Proto-history: According to legends, Vietnam originated in the seventh century BC when the Hung Kings founded Van Lang. In the third century BC, King An Duong. Vuong named founded Au Lac and ruled until 179 B.C.
- Chinese Occupation: Vietnam was occupied by China from the first to the tenth century AD.
- Monarchy: Kings ruled the area from 968 to1945.
- Independence: The Socialist Republic of Vietnam was founded after the 1945 revolution, when President Ho Chi Minh declared independence.
- French War: Vietnam battled French colonialism from 1858 to the August Revolution in 1945 and from 1946 to the victory at Dien Bien Phu in 1954.
- American War: Vietnam fought America from 1954 to Ho Chi Minh's victory on April 30, 1975.
- From 1975 until now: Vietnam has been working towards development and success.
Vietnam has 64 provinces, including five municipalities (Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Haiphong, Can Tho, and Danang).
There are 54 ethnic groups living in Vietnam, The Viet (or Kinh) people account for 88% of Vietnam's population and are mostly concentrated in the lowlands. Most of the country's 5.5 million ethnic minority peoples live in mountainous areas. Major groups include the Tay (960,000 people); the Nung (152,000 people); the Thai (770,000 people); the Muong (700,000 people); the H'mong (441,000 people); the Dao (340,000 people); the Hoa (930,000 people); the Khmer (720,000 people); the Bana (100,000 people); the Giarai (184,000 people); and the Ede (140,000 people).
Major spiritual influences in Vietnam include Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, and native religions (Ancestor, Mother Goddess Worship). Christianity arrived in the late 18th century and now has the second largest religious following, after Buddhism. Other religions practiced include Islam and Cao Dai, with higher concentrations in the South.
Vietnamese languages and scripts
More than 80% of the population speak Vietnamese (or Kinh), the national language. Ethnic minorities have native languages. Three scripts have influenced Vietnam's history:
- Han (Chinese) ideograms were used until the beginning of the 20th century.
- The Nom script, created between the 11th and 14th centuries, is based on the Han script.
- European missionaries in the 17th century used the Roman alphabet to record the Vietnamese language and created Quoc Ngu script. After independence in 1945, Quoc Ngu was developed and used as the official national language.
Government offices and museums open early, around 8am, and close between 4pm and 5pm. Avoid doing business from 11.30am to 2pm, when many people are either at lunch or napping.
The national emblem of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam is circular in shape; in the middle of a red background is a five-pointed golden star framed by rice ears below which is half a cogwheel and the inscription: Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
On 1939 the present Vietnamese flag was created by one teacher who worked for Vietnam communist party. One year later he was prosecuted to dead by the French colonialist. The flag has to main colors: Red stands for blood and yellow stands for color of Vietnamese skin. "Red blood and yellow skin are Vietnamese". The star with five focal points stands for five types of people at that time were: Intellectuals, Farmers, Workers, Business men and Soldiers.
The Vietnamese flag first officially hoisted in the Ba Dinh Square on the occasion of the foundation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945 when President Ho Chi Minh read the Declaration of Independent.
Source: Viet Vision Travel